Namespace Keyword
Namespace Version
Namespace URL

Sample Annotated Edges 4

complex(a(CHEBI:"Anatoxin a"), p(HGNCGENEFAMILY:"Cholinergic receptors nicotinic subunits")) increases act(p(HGNCGENEFAMILY:"Cholinergic receptors nicotinic subunits")) View Subject | View Object

In addition to nicotine, an nAChR agonist of considerable commercial importance is anatoxin-a (Fig. 3). This toxin is a product of the blue-green algae, Anabaena, and can reach high concentrations during algal blooms common to ponds that serve as the summer water source of livestock. While this toxin exerts much of its effect through targeting muscle nAChRs, it was recognized over two decades ago to also interact with nAChRs expressed by ganglionic receptors (38). Its ability to activate in central nervous system (CNS) neurons nicotinic currents sensitive to alpha-BGT was among the first indicators that functional alpha7 nAChRs could be distinguished from other nAChRs in neurons of the mammalian brain (38). PubMed:19126755

Appears in Networks:
Central Nervous System
Text Location

act(p(HGNCGENEFAMILY:"Cholinergic receptors nicotinic subunits")) increases a(CHEBI:"calcium(2+)", loc(GO:intracellular)) View Subject | View Object

Long before the identification of the high Ca2+ permeability of alpha7 nAChR channels, different studies reported significant Ca2+ influx through nAChRs in muscle, parasympathetic neurons, pheochromocytoma cells, and human neuroblastoma cells (115, 321, 347, 407, 411, 459, 468). PubMed:19126755

Appears in Networks:

complex(p(HGNC:CHRNA1), p(HGNC:CHRNA1), p(HGNC:CHRNB1), p(HGNC:CHRND), p(HGNC:CHRNG)) increases p(FPLX:CHRN) View Subject | View Object

Cholinergic nicotinic receptors expressed in muscle and ganglia are comprised of two α subunits plus each of the other three PubMed:26813123

p(HGNC:RAPSN) increases bp(GO:"skeletal muscle acetylcholine-gated channel clustering") View Subject | View Object

Rapsyn is essential for AChR clustering in muscle [100] and has also been detected in non-muscle cells, including neurons of the ciliary ganglia [101,102], fibroblasts [103], myocardial cells, and Leydig cells [104]. PubMed:22040696


BEL Commons is developed and maintained in an academic capacity by Charles Tapley Hoyt and Daniel Domingo-Fernández at the Fraunhofer SCAI Department of Bioinformatics with support from the IMI project, AETIONOMY. It is built on top of PyBEL, an open source project. Please feel free to contact us here to give us feedback or report any issues. Also, see our Publishing Notes and Data Protection information.

If you find BEL Commons useful in your work, please consider citing: Hoyt, C. T., Domingo-Fernández, D., & Hofmann-Apitius, M. (2018). BEL Commons: an environment for exploration and analysis of networks encoded in Biological Expression Language. Database, 2018(3), 1–11.