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albuquerque2009 v1.0.0

This file encodes the article Mammalian Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: From Structure to Function by Albuquerque et al, 2009



The metabotropic receptors are second messenger, G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane proteins. They are classically defined as being activated by muscarine, a toxin from the mushroom Amanita muscaria, and inhibited by atropine, a toxin from Atropa belladonna, a member of the nightshade family. Both toxins cross the blood-brain barrier poorly and were discovered primarily from their influences on postganglionic parasympathetic nervous system functions. Activation of muscarinic AChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1- M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium.

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