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A final point of interest relates to potential upstream modifications of tau. Endogenous tau is phosphorylated, and in AD, tau phosphorylation becomes dysregulated. This may interfere with subsequent processes including cleavage and degradation. For example, tau that is in the cis-conformation at T231 appears resistant to degradation, as cis-tau is found in dystrophic neurites while trans-tau is not. Additionally cis-tau partitions to the insoluble fraction (30). Phosphorylation at T231 prevents the isomerase Pin1 from converting cis-tau to trans-tau (30).

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If you find BEL Commons useful in your work, please consider citing: Hoyt, C. T., Domingo-Fernández, D., & Hofmann-Apitius, M. (2018). BEL Commons: an environment for exploration and analysis of networks encoded in Biological Expression Language. Database, 2018(3), 1–11.