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A recent study showed that thrombin is elevated in microvessels isolated from AD brain compared to microvessels from control brain (33). Additionally, thrombin was present in the CSF of AD patients but not in that of controls (33). This is important, as thrombin can act as a neurotoxin by activating intracellular signaling cascades causing neurite retraction and stimulating apoptosis (34–36)

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