TBI with loss of consciousness
Results indicate that previous TBI with LOC was associated with greater somatic complaints (BSI Somatic), depression (BSI Depression) and anxiety (BSI Anxiety), lower life satisfaction (SWLS), more postconcussive (RPQ-13) and -traumatic stress (PCL-C) symptoms at 6-month follow-up, and worse processing speed (WAIS-IV PSI) and verbal learning (CVLT-II Trails 1–5).
Veterans 281 with severe TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) or prolonged post- 282 traumatic amnesia (PTA) were 4 timesmore likely to have AD, whereas 283 veterans with moderate TBI were twice as likely to have AD in late-life 284 compared to controls
A single moderate to severe TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is 220 associated with a 4 fold increased risk of dementia in later life. The dementia is most often catego- 223 rized as probable or possible Alzheimer's disease (AD) using validated 224 clinical criteria, but fewstudies included neuropathological verification, 225 and clinical overlaps between AD, CTE and other post-traumatic 226 neurodegenerations are known to occur
ANOVAshowed a significant difference across groups ( p < 0.001); Tukey post hoc test demonstrated that healthy controls and patients with acute TBI reporting no previous TBI constituted a statistically different subgroup in AutoAb[GFAP] levels than patients with acute TBI reporting previous TBI either with or without LOC (Fig. 1).
There was no association between TBI with LOC <1 hour and any neuropathological finding except Lewy bodies in frontal or temporal cortex in ROS and MAP. People with TBI with LOC>1 hour had increased risk for cerebral microinfarcts in ROS and MAP and hippocampal sclerosis and Lewy bodies in ACT.
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